Original: It was so late there was no taxi.
Revised: It was so late there WEREN'T ANY TAXIS.
Original: Your coat is broken.
Revised: Your coat is RIPPED [or TORN].
Original: Let me help you to do your work.
Revised: Let me help you do your work. [delete TO]
Original: Susan didn't make a fault anyway.
Revised: Susan didn't make a MISTAKE anyway.
Original: He becomes better.
Revised: He's GETTING better.
Original: I recommend you to take a long vacation.
Revised: I SUGGEST you take a long vacation. [delete TO]
Original: It was still bright outside.
Revised: It was still LIGHT outside.
Original: Wait here, please, I'll come back in a minute.
Revised: Wait here, please, I'll BE back in a minute.
Original: I am uncomfortable.
Revised: I FEEL uncomfortable.
The reason why I think that some are perceived as "incorrect" is because the speakers are trying to create idioms. And it's common for people to translate their own expressions into the target language instead of memorizing the phrases of the new language.
For instance, "bright" is a quality of lightness. I think that sentence is meant to say that it's light outside (ie, the sun is out), as opposed to dark. And I know that there is a Chinese character for "bright" that is used in Japanese, so I'm guessing that Chinese uses a similar character.
The "come back" phrase is perhaps technically correct, but "be back" is more "natural". Many native English speakers say "be back" instead of "come back." Maybe it sounds better because "come back" is too literal and precise. "Be back" is the phrase that is common.
Also, someone can be uncomfortable, but that's a feeling, which is why "feel" seems more natural. I am uncomfortable sounds so definite and factual.
Well, that's my attempt to explain why those are mistakes. I'm responding to what Arrogant Polyglot said in the comments section of my post.